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DVD an abbreviation of " digital video disc "  or " digital versatile disc "   is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in The medium can store any kind of digital data and is widely used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players.
DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs while having the same dimensions. The Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In rival manufacturers of the product initially named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc.
There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in and first patented in A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States , and first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in It used much larger discs than the later formats.
Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was very low in both North America and Europe, and was not widely used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia , such as Hong-Kong , Singapore , Malaysia and Taiwan.
Video CD VCD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, and sought support for their format for storing computer data.
Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple , Microsoft , Sun Microsystems , Dell , and many others.
On August 14, , an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies IBM, Apple, Compaq , Hewlett-Packard , and Microsoft issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over. Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, and agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both.
Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format. Simultaneously, the movie studios decided to change their home entertainment release model from a rental model to a for purchase model, [ citation needed ] and large numbers of DVDs were sold. At the same time, a demand for interactive design talent and services was created.
Movies in the past had uniquely designed title sequences. Suddenly every movie being released required information architecture and interactive design components that matched the film's tone and were at the quality level that Hollywood demanded for its product. DVD as a format had two qualities at the time that were not available in any other interactive medium: In addition, the medium itself was small enough and light enough to mail using general first class postage.
Almost overnight, this created a new business opportunity and model for business innovators to re-invent the home entertainment distribution model. It also gave companies an inexpensive way to provide business and product information on full motion video through direct mail.
Immediately following the formal adoption of a unified standard for DVD, two of the four leading video game console companies Sega and The 3DO Company said they already had plans to design a gaming console with DVDs as the source medium. Contemporary games for Windows were also distributed on DVD. Some specifications for mechanical, physical and optical characteristics of DVD optical discs can be downloaded as freely available standards from the ISO website.
Some DVD specifications e. HP initially developed recordable DVD media from the need to store data for backup and transport. Three formats were developed: Most DVD readers and players play both kinds of discs, though older models can have trouble with the "plus" variants. The MID contains data such as the manufacturer and model, byte capacity, allowed data rates also known as speed , etc..
When played, a slight transition can sometimes be seen in the playback when the player changes layers. A dual-layer disc differs from its single layered counterpart by employing a second physical layer within the disc itself. The drive with dual-layer capability accesses the second layer by shining the laser through the first semitransparent layer. In some DVD players, the layer change can exhibit a noticeable pause, up to several seconds.
The recording speeds reached by dual-layer media are still well below those of single-layer media. Track 1 then starts at the outside diameter. DVD video discs are mastered slightly differently.
The video is divided between the layers such that layer 1 can be made to start at the same diameter that layer 0 finishes. This speeds up the transition as the layer changes because although the laser does have to refocus on layer 1, it does not have to skip across the disc to find it. In draft versions of the specification, DVD-5 indeed held five gigabytes, but some parameters were changed later on as explained above, so the capacity decreased.
These are the same sizes as a standard CD and a mini-CD , respectively. Each DVD sector contains 2, bytes of data, 2, bytes of which are user data. All three common optical disc media Compact disc , DVD, and Blu-ray use light from laser diodes , for its spectral purity and ability to be focused precisely.
This shorter wavelength allows a smaller pit on the media surface compared to CDs 0. DVD-Video became the dominant form of home video distribution in Japan when it first went on sale in , but it shared the market for home video distribution in the United States until June 15, , when weekly DVD-Video in the United States rentals began outnumbering weekly VHS cassette rentals. CSS utilizes a proprietary bit stream cipher algorithm. The system was introduced around and was first compromised in The rise of filesharing has prompted many copyright holders to display notices on DVD packaging or displayed on screen when the content is played that warn consumers of the illegality of certain uses of the DVD.
It is commonplace to include a second advertisement warning that most forms of copying the contents are illegal. Many DVDs prevent skipping past or fast-forwarding through this warning. Arrangements for renting and lending differ by geography. In Europe, rental and lending rights are more limited, under a European Directive that gives copyright holders broader powers to restrict the commercial renting and public lending of DVD copies of their work.
It offers many channel configuration options from mono to 5. Compared with the CD format, the much higher-capacity DVD format enables the inclusion of considerably more music with respect to total running time and quantity of songs or far higher audio quality reflected by higher sampling rates , greater sample resolution and additional channels for spatial sound reproduction.
The subsequent release of the libdvdcpxm library based on dvdcpxm allowed for the development of open source DVD-Audio players and ripping software. As a result, making 1: However, unlike previous format changes, e. In fact, experts claim that the DVD will remain the dominant medium for at least another five years as Blu-ray technology is still in its introductory phase, write and read speeds being poor and necessary hardware being expensive and not readily available.
Consumers initially were also slow to adopt Blu-ray due to the cost. A high-definition television and appropriate connection cables are also required to take advantage of Blu-ray disc.
Some analysts suggest that the biggest obstacle to replacing DVD is due to its installed base; a large majority of consumers are satisfied with DVDs. This stands in contrast to the change from vinyl to CD, and from tape to DVD, which involved a complete change in physical medium.
As of [update] it is still commonplace for studios to issue major releases in "combo pack" format, including both a DVD and a Blu-ray disc as well as, a digital copy. Also, some multi-disc sets use Blu-ray for the main feature, but DVDs for supplementary features examples of this include the Harry Potter "Ultimate Edition" collections, the re-release of the The Prisoner TV series, and a collection related to Blade Runner.
Another reason cited July for the slower transition to Blu-ray from DVD is the necessity of and confusion over "firmware updates" and needing an internet connection to perform updates. Because the new and old mediums were virtually the same a disc on a turntable, played by a needle , phonograph player manufacturers continued to include the ability to play 78s for decades after the format was discontinued. Manufacturers continue to release standard DVD titles as of [update] , and the format remains the preferred one for the release of older television programs and films.
Some programs, such as Star Trek: The Original Series and Star Trek: The Next Generation must be re-scanned to produce a high definition version from the original film recordings. Certain special effects were also updated to appear better in high-definition. DVDs are also facing competition from video on demand services. PWC predicts that online streaming revenue will overtake physical media sales revenue by DVD longevity is measured by how long the data remains readable from the disc, assuming compatible devices exist that can read it: Numerous factors affect longevity: A lower temperature and RH is recommended for extended-term storage.
There were ninety samples tested for each product. Four products had estimated life expectancies of 30—45 years in ambient storage conditions. Two products had an estimated life expectancy of 15—30 years and two products had estimated life expectancies of less than 15 years when stored in ambient conditions.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see DVD disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Optical disc Optical disc drive Optical disc authoring Authoring software Recording technologies Recording modes Packet writing.
History of optical storage media High-definition optical disc format war. All sizes are expressed in their decimal sense i. Optical disc drive and DVD player. Content Protection for Recordable Media. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Retrieved 28 October The New York Times.
Retrieved 14 August Philips System Standards and Licensing. The Calm Before the Storm".
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Thank you for purchasing the Targus USB 2. Installing the Targus drive may change internal drive letter assignments. You can connect the Targus drive to your computer via a hub or port replicator as long as the device has its own AC power adapter. If using a hub or port replicator, the USB ports on the device must provide at least mA, per port, for the Targus drive to work properly. Also, for best results, turn off any high power devices on the hub or port replicator while using the drive. To playback movies, you must have a DVD player application installed on your computer. Hot Swapping You can connect and disconnect the Targus drive while the computer is running. When connecting the Targus drive, first connect the Type A connectors of the Y-cable and then connect the Type B connector. Y-cable are fully inserted into available USB ports on your computer. If there is no sound when using the Targus drive, check that: This warranty does not cover accidental damage, wear and tear, or consequential or incidental loss. Under no conditions is Targus liable for loss of, or damage to a devices nor loss of, or damage to, programs, records, or data; nor any consequential or incidental damages, even if Targus has been informed of their possibility.